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The history of what is now known as the College of Sciences of the University of Tehran dates back to the time of establishment of Dar ul-Funun ("house of knowledge of methods"), approximately 160 years ago. The Dar ul-Funun, where learning was taught at a high school level, is sometimes considered the first modern institution of higher learning in Iran. Initially, physics, chemistry, natural sciences, pharmacology, and mineralogy constituted the courses taught there.

Afterwards, algebra, geometry, geography, and painting were added to the curriculum.  In 1928, an institute of learning named Dar ul-Moalemine-Ali ("house of higher learning for teachers") comprised of a Faculty of Sciences and a Faculty of Literature was established. Its name was later changed to Danesh-Saraye-Ali ("house of higher knowledge"). Fields of study in the Faculty of Sciences were physics, chemistry, mathematics, and the natural sciences. After several years, the institute was moved the location of the former Theological School. There, two Iranian professors and seven French professors taught 100 students. Dr. Mahmoud Hesabi and Dr. Ghpolam-Hossein Rahnama were the two Iranian professors. In 1934, Dr. Hesabi, Dr. Sedghi, and Mr. Batliani proposed to the Minister of Education that the University of Tehran with six faculties, Medicine, Law, Natural Sciences, Technology, Theology, and Education, be established. The Parliament approved the establishment of the University of Tehran in that same year. Danesh-Saraye-Ali immediately became adjunct to the University of Tehran. In fact, as the University had no buildings, the buildings of Danesh-Saraye-Ali were used for the Faculty of Sciences and Faculty of Literature. Shortly thereafter, the name "daneshgah" ("place of knowledge") replaced the word university, and "daneshkadeh" ("village of knowledge") replaced the word faculty in the Farsi titles of the respective institutes. Similarly, the word "daneshjoo" ("seeker of knowledge") became widely used in reference to students studying in the Daneshgah. Daneshkadeh of Engineering (Faculty of Technology) became active soon after establishment of the University.

From 1934 through 1958, the Faculty of Sciences selected incoming students through an examination designed by the same faculty. The length of studies that culminated in receipt of a diploma lasted three years. The building of the Faculty of Sciences, that exists to this date and that is the major building of the Faculty, was inaugurated in 1951. Departments of all fields of the basic sciences were housed in the same building. In 1963, with the objective of becoming better coordinated with educational programs at universities outside of Iran, the length of studies at the Faculty of Sciences expanded to four years, and the degree granted ("license") became internationally recognized as equivalent to a Bachelor's Degree. Allotment of credit units to courses was an important undertaking. In the same year, entrance to the University became dependent on performance in an examination administered at the national level ("konkoor"). Master's degree programs were also initiated or expanded. In 2005, in the framework of organizational changes in the University, the Faculty of Sciences was allotted a higher status and became known as the College of Sciences ("Pardis-e Oloom"). The College is constituted by five independent schools (now called "daneshkadeh") including Physics, Chemistry, Geology, Biological Sciences, and Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Sciences. An independent department called The Department of Biotechnology that offers a PhD program to students just graduating from high school is also part of the College of Sciences at the University of Tehran.